Free download Pushing Electrons: A Guide for Students of Organic Chemistry (4th edition) written by Daniel P. Weeks & Arthur H. Winter in pdf.
Among the factors that set organic chemistry apart from the other traditional divisions of chemistry are the endless variety of structure, the strong dependence on the resonance theory, and the emphasis on mechanisms. As students become more facile with structure and more adroit at writing resonance structures and mechanisms, organic chemistry changes from a bewildering array of facts to a unified science.
Newly encountered reactions can be understood from previously learned principles. At the introduction of resonance or mechanisms, the professor begins using little arrows that resemble fishhooks Using these arrows, electrons are moved around molecules and appear—as if by wizardry—precisely where the professor needs them. The penchant for moving electrons has earned organic chemists the pejorative electron pusher that, like the 18th century British expression Yankee Doodle, we wear proudly.
We have observed that students avoid pushing electrons. They find it difficult, therefore, to write resonance structures and lose a powerful tool to explain reactivity. Many students never become comfortable with bond-making and bond-breaking steps in organic mechanisms. With this low-tech, pencil-and-paper program, a student can learn to push electrons with the same wizardry as the professor.
While working through this book, the student will learn to construct Lewis structures of organic molecules and functional groups. The functional groups will be learned early and in a way that minimizes the necessity for memorization. Then a systematic method is presented whereby all the possible resonance structures for a molecule, ion, or radical can be generated by beginning with one Lewis structure and moving electrons.
- Lewis Structures
- Resonance Structures
- On Solving Mechanism Problems
- Some Reactions from Biochemistry
- Valence Electrons (redux)
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